Environmental Data

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A

Acute

An abrupt onset. Acute often connotes an illness or disease that is of short duration, rapidly progressive, and in need of urgent care. Acute is a measure of the time scale of a disease and is in contrast to “chronic."

Adjusted Rate

Adjusted rate means to have been statistically modified to eliminate the effect of different distributions in the different populations. This allows health measures such as rates of diseases and deaths to be compared between several communities with different groups. The most common factor used to adjust rates is age; other factors can also be used, such as race or gender.

Adverse Health Effect

A harmful or abnormal result. It may be caused by administration of a medication or by exposure to a chemical and be indicated by an untoward result such as by illness or death.

Aggregate Data

Data created from individual-level records that have been combined for statistical or analytical purposes.

Aggregated Rate

An aggregated rate is calculated by summing or combining multiple data elements. The practice of using aggregated data is sometimes done to increase statistical power when the amount of data may be limited. It may also be used when displaying the data element individually could potentially compromise confidentiality or provide identifying information on a specific demographic or geography. For example, if a county had a specific health condition with only one case for a specific race or gender, that rate would be aggregated by all races and/or genders before being displayed. A rolling rate is another example of an aggregated rate. Rolling rates are calculated across a time period that will overlap another time period. For example, data may be cumulated for the time period of 2000 - 2002, 2001 - 2003, and 2002 - 2004. Rolling rates are most often displayed in three, five, and ten-year intervals. Aggregated data is sometimes referred to as cumulative or cumulated data.

Air Pollution

The presence in or introduction into the air of a substance, which has harmful or poisonous effects.

Air Quality Index

Air Quality Index (AQI) is a number used by government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted the air currently is or how polluted it is forecast to become. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects.

Ambient Air

The quality of outdoor air in our surrounding environment. It is typically measured near ground level, away from direct sources of pollution.

Amputation

Amputation is the removal of part or all of a body part that is enclosed by skin. It is typically performed to prevent the spread of gangrene as a complication of frostbite, injury, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, or any other illness that impairs blood circulation. It is also performed to prevent the spread of bone cancer and to curtail loss of blood and infection in a person who has suffered severe, irreparable damage to a limb. When performing an amputation, surgeons generally cut above the diseased or injured area so that a portion of healthy tissue remains to cushion bone. Sometimes the location of a cut may depend in part on its suitability to be fitted with an artificial limb, or prosthesis.

Analysis

A detailed examination of the elements or structure of something, typically as a basis for discussion or interpretation.

Analyte

A substance whose chemical ingredients are being identified and measured.

Anencephaly

A condition that prevents the normal development of the brain and the bones of the skull. This condition results when a structure called the neural tube fails to close during the first few weeks of embryonic development, it is classified as a neural tube defect (NTD).

Arsenic

A grayish-white mineral having a metallic luster. Arsenic vaporizes when heated and forms poisonous compounds.

Asbestosis

A condition featuring scarring of the lungs caused by inhaled asbestos fibers. Asbestosis is irreversible.

Asthma

A common chronic condition of airway inflammation characterized by recurrent, reversible, airway obstruction. Asthma results from complex interactions between an individual's inherited genetic makeup and their interactions with the environment.

Average

An average is a single value that represents the general significance of a set of unequal values. Averages are calculated by adding the values for each individual, group, and/or location, then dividing the sum by the number of values.

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B

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

A state-based health survey that annually collects information on health conditions, behaviors, preventive practices and access to health care.

Biomonitoring

The measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites, in biological substances. Often, these measurements are done in blood and/or urine samples.

Birth Defects

Birth defects are structural or functional abnormalities present at birth that cause physical or mental disability. Some may be fatal. Birth defects have a variety of causes, such as:

Blood Lead Level

A test that measures the amount of lead in the blood. A blood sample is needed. This test is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children who live in urban areas. The test is also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working.

Built Environment

The part of the physical environment constructed by human activity.

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C

Cancer

Cells that grow out-of-control and invade other tissues. Cells become cancerous due to the accumulation of defects, or mutations, in their DNA. Certain inherited genetic defects and infections can increase the risk of cancer. Environmental factors (for example, air pollution) and poor lifestyle choices -- such as smoking and heavy alcohol use -- can also damage DNA and lead to cancer.

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

A colorless, odorless, toxic flammable gas formed by incomplete combustion of carbon.

Carcinogen

A substance or agent that causes cancer.

Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular relates to the circulatory system, this comprises the heart and blood vessels, carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body, and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes from them.

Cardiovascular Disease

A class of diseases that involves the heart or the blood vessels, including arteriosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart valve disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, shock, endocarditis, diseases of the aorta and its branches, disorders of the peripheral vascular system, and congenital heart disease.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

Compression and irritation of the median nerve as it passes under the transverse carpal ligament in the wrist. CTS can be due to trauma from repetitive work, such as that of retail checkers and cashiers, assembly line workers, meat packers, typists, writers, and accountants. The symptoms of CTS include numbness, tingling, and a 'pins and needles' feeling especially at night in the hand, particularly in the thumb, index, and middle fingers. CTS can also cause wrist pain, weakness in the grip, and a feeling of hand incoordination. In some cases, the pain seems to migrate up from the wrist and into the arm, shoulder, and neck.

Census

An official count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The US agency charged with tracking and investigating public health trends. A part of the US Public Health Services (PHS) under the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the CDC is based in Atlanta, Georgia. It publishes key health information, including weekly data on all deaths and diseases reported in the US and travelers' health advisories. The CDC also fields special rapid-response teams to halt epidemic diseases.

Chemical

A compound or substance that has been purified or prepared, especially artificially.

Cholesterol

A waxy, fat-like substance that your body needs to function normally. The cholesterol in a person's blood originates from two major sources: the diet and the liver. It is the most common type of steroid in the body. Cholesterol has a reputation for being associated with an increased risk for heart and blood vessel disease. Cholesterol is naturally present in cell walls or membranes everywhere in the body, including the brain, nerves, muscles, skin, liver, intestines, and heart. Your body uses cholesterol to produce many hormones, vitamin D, and the bile acids that help to digest fat.

Chronic

Lasting a long time. Chronic illness or disease is one that lasts three months or more. Chronic is a measure of the time scale of the disease and is in contrast to “acute.”

Civilian

A person whose primary occupation is civil or nonmilitary.

Civilian Veterans

Those 18 or older who are not currently on active duty but who once served on active duty in the United States Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine corps, or Coast Guard, or who served in the Merchant Marine during World War II. (Active duty does not include time-spent training in the military reserves or National Guard, such as the 4 to 6 months of initial training or yearly summer camps.)

Clean Air Act

A United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.

Cleft Lip (with or without Cleft Palate)

An opening extending through the upper lip. It may be in the midline (center) or left and/or right side of the lip.

Cleft Palate

An opening of the hard palate (the bony front portion of the roof of the mouth) or the soft palate (the muscular non-bony region in the rear of the roof of the mouth. Similar to a cleft lip, a cleft palate may be midline and/or to either right of left side of the palate. A cleft palate may extend from the upper jawbone to the rear of the throat.

Collaborative

Collaborative means produced or conducted by two or more parties working together.

Community

A group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common.

Concentration

The amount of a component in a given area or volume.

Confidence Intervals

Confidence Intervals are a range around a value that conveys how reliable and stable the value is. In general, the smaller the confidence interval range is the more reliable and stable the value will be. For example, a 95% confidence interval can be thought of as a range of values or interval that contains the “true value” 95% of the time. If the analysis were conducted 100 times, 95 of those times the final value would fall within the range and five of those times, the final value would fall either higher or lower than the range. Confidence intervals are sometimes referred to as “margins of error.”

Contaminant

Something that makes a place or a substance (such as water, air, or food) no longer suitable for use.

Correlation

A mutual relationship or connection between two or more things.

Crime Rate

The number of offenses per 100,000 population.

Criteria Pollutants

Criteria pollutants are the only air pollutants with national air quality standards that define allowable concentrations of these substances in ambient air. They are particulate matter, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. These pollutants can harm your health and the environment, and cause property damage. Of the six pollutants, particulate matter and ozone are the most widespread health threats. The Environmental Protection Agency calls these pollutants "criteria" air pollutants because it regulates them by developing human health-based and/or environmentally based criteria (science-based guidelines) for setting permissible levels.

Crude Rate

The overall frequency that has not been adjusted for significant factors that might have influenced the rate. Crude rates are recommended as a summary measure when it is not necessary to adjust or accommodate for other factors.

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D

Data Element

The physical unit of storage in a record.

Data Set

A collection of related sets of information that is composed of separate elements but can be manipulated as a unit by a computer.

Data Source

An organization or information system providing data.

Deciliter

Metric unit of capacity, equal to one tenth of a liter. Abbreviated as "dL". One deciliter is about 3.38 fluid ounces.

De–identified

De–identified information does not identify an individual and with respect to which there is no reasonable basis to believe that the information can be used to identify an individual; therefore de–identified information is not individually identifiable health information and not protected health information.

Demographic Group

The characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth, density, distribution and vital statistics.

Demographic Information

Characteristics used to describe a group of people.

Disability

A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity.

Disinfection Byproducts

Chemical, organic, and inorganic substances that can form during a reaction of a disinfectant with naturally present organic matter in the water. A disinfectant, such as chlorine, is added to drinking water to protect drinking water from disease-causing organisms or pathogens.

Disparity

Disparity is inequality or difference, as in age, rank, wages, etc.

Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

A genetic disorder and the most common autosomal chromosome abnormality in humans, where extra genetic material from chromosome 21 is transferred to a newly formed embryo. These extra genes and DNA cause changes in development of the embryo and fetus resulting in physical and mental abnormalities. Each patient is unique and there can be great variability in the severity of symptoms.

Duration

The measure of time during which something continues or exists.

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E

Emissions

The act of releasing or discharging something (such as a chemical or substance) into the environment.

English Language Skills

The ability to speak and understand the English language.

Environment

The whole complex of factors (soil, climate and living things) that influence the form and ability to survive in a plant, animal or ecological community.

Environmental Epidemiology

The branch of epidemiology concerned with the discovery of the environmental exposures that contribute to or protect against injuries, illnesses, developmental conditions, disabilities and deaths; and identification of public health and health care actions to manage the risks associated with harmful exposures.

Environmental Hazards

Agents or factors in the environment that may adversely affect human health.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

An agency of the United States federal government whose mission is to protect human and environmental health.

Environmental Public Health Tracking

The ongoing collection, integration, analysis, interpretation and dissemination of data on environmental hazards, exposures to those hazards, and health effects that may be related to the exposures.

Epidemiologist

A person that studies the patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

Establishments

A place of business with its furnishings and staff.

Ethnicity

Ethnicity is the fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition.

Exposure

Exposure is having come into contact with a cause of, or possessing a characteristic that is a determinant of, a particular health problem.

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F

Families

Families are two or more people related by birth, marriage or adoption residing in the same housing unit.

Fatality

An occurrence of death by accident, in war or from disease.

Fetal Death

A fetal death is a non-induced death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a fetus, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, the death is indicated by fact that after such expulsion or extraction the fetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles.

Fertility

The natural capability to produce offspring.

Fetus

A developing human from usually two months after conception to birth.

Fish Advisory

A guide to inform individuals of the benefits of eating fish, and which fish to eat in limited quantities, or not to eat due to environmental contaminants. Fish is a good source of high-quality protein, “heart healthy” fatty acids, and essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy diet if eaten regularly. Fish is low in cholesterol. Some types of fish have omega-3 fatty acids that are essential in the development of the central nervous system and may be beneficial in reducing heart disease.

Food Deserts

Rural towns without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food. Instead of supermarkets and grocery stores, these communities may have no food access or are served only by fast food restaurants and convenience stores that offer few healthy, affordable food options.

Frequency

The rate at which something occurs or is repeated over a particular period of time or in a given sample.

Full Time Equivalent (FTE)

A unit that indicates the workload of an employed person (or student) in a way that makes workloads or class loads comparable across various contexts.

Fungicide

A chemical that destroys fungus.

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G

Gastroschisis

A type of hernia. Hernia means rupture. Babies with this condition have a hole in the abdominal wall. The child's intestines usually stick out (protrude) through the hole.

Gender

The behavioral, cultural or psychological traits typically associated with the state of being male or female.

Geocode

The process of transforming a description of a location - such as a pair of coordinates, an address, or a name of a place - to a location on the earth's surface.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

A computer system that allows you to map, model, query, and analyze large quantities of data within a single database according to their location.

Geography

The study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere, and of human activity as it affects and is affected by these, including the distribution of populations and resources, land use, and industries. The Census Bureau’s urban-rural classification is fundamentally a delineation of geographical areas, identifying both individual urban areas and the rural areas of the nation. The Census Bureau’s urban areas represent densely developed territory, and encompass residential, commercial, and other non-residential urban land uses. The Census Bureau identifies two types of urban areas:

Gestation

The process of carrying or being carried in the womb between conception and birth.

Groundwater

Water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.

Group Quarters

Places where people live or stay, in a group living arrangement, which is owned or managed by an entity or organization providing housing and/or services for the residents. This is not a typical household-type living arrangement.

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H

Hazardous Substance

Any material that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.

Herbicide

A substance toxic to plants and is used to destroy unwanted vegetation.

Household

A one person or a group of people living in a housing unit.

Householder

The person who owns or rents the household and designates themself as the head of household.

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

A rare congenital heart defect in which the left ventricle of the heart is severely underdeveloped.

Hypospadias

A congenital condition in males in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis.

Hyperthermia

A physician-diagnosed case of heat exhaustion or heat stroke.

Hypothermia

A physician-diagnosed case of cold injury associated with a fall of body temperature to less than 94.1°F and resulting from exposure to a cold environment.

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I

Incidence

Rate of occurrence or influence of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time.

Indicator

Any of a group of statistical values taken together give evidence of the status of the topic.

Industry

A group of businesses that provide a particular product or service.

Infant Mortality

The death of children under the age of one year.

Infrastructure

Basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.

Insurance

A practice or arrangement by which a company or government agency provides a guarantee of compensation for specified loss, damage, illness or death in return for payment of a premium.

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K

Kilogram

A unit of mass, a property, which corresponds to the common perception of how “heavy” an object, is.

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L

Lead

A common soft blue-gray metallic element. Lead is poisonous, a characteristic that has led to a reduction in the use of lead compounds as pigments for paints and inks. Lead is also used as a protective shielding against x-rays.

Live Birth

The complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a child, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, which after such expulsion or extraction, breathes or shows any other evidence of life such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached.

Low Birth Weight

Low birth weight is defined as a birth weight of a live born infant of less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) regardless of gestational age.

Lower Limb Deficiencies

A birth defect that occurs when a part of or the leg (lower limb) of a fetus fails to form completely during pregnancy.

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M

Maternal Age

The age of the mother at the time of delivery.

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)

The legal threshold limit on the amount of a substance that is allowed in public water systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act.

Mean

Simple or arithmetic average of a range of values or quantities, computed by dividing the total of all values by the number of values.

Measure

A summary characteristic or statistic, such as a sum, percentage, or rate.

Medicaid

A U.S. government program financed by federal, state, and local funds, of hospitalization and medical insurance for persons of all ages within certain income limits.

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)

An MOU describes a bilateral or multilateral agreement between two or more parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action.

Mercury

A heavy silvery white poisonous metallic chemical element that is liquid at ordinary temperatures.

Mesothelioma

An uncommon disease that causes malignant cancer cells to form within the lining of the chest, abdomen, or around the heart.

Metadata

Data that serves to provide context or additional information about other data. It may also describe the conditions under which the data stored in a database was acquired, its accuracy, date, time, method of compilation and processing, etc.

Metal Poisoning

Toxic effect of certain metals in certain forms and doses on life. Some metals are toxic when they form poisonous soluble compounds. Certain metals have no biological role, i.e. are not essential minerals, or are toxic when in a certain form.

Missouri Health Strategic Architectures and Information Cooperative (MOHSAIC)

The integrated, population based database that is utilized for immunizations, communicable disease, environmental surveillance and reportable disease documentation for the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (DHSS).

Missouri Information for Community Assessment (MICA)

An interactive system that allows the user to create and download tables, based on selected variables from numerous data files. Data for the MICAs are extracted and summarized from files maintained by the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services. These data sets provide information on health conditions and associated topics.

Missouri Public Health Information Management System (MOPHIMS)

Provides a common means for users to access public health related data to assist in defining the health status and needs of Missourians.

Mitigation

Elimination or reduction of the frequency, magnitude, or severity of exposure to risks, or minimization of the potential impact of a threat or warning.

Mobility

The movement of people in a population, as from place to place, from job to job, or from one social class or level to another.

Morbidity

The relative incidence of disease that alters health and quality of life.

Mortality

The number of deaths in a given location or time period.

Musculoskeletal

Relating to or denoting the musculature and skeleton together.

Myocardial Infarction (MI)

Death of the cells of an area of the heart muscle (myocardium) as a result of oxygen deprivation, which in turn is caused by obstruction of the blood supply; commonly referred to as a “heart attack.”

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N

National Association for Public Health Statistics and Information Systems (NAPHSIS)

The national nonprofit organization representing the state vital records and public health statistics offices in the United States.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

NAAQS are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. The EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six principal pollutants, which are called "criteria" pollutants: carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particle pollution, and sulfur dioxide. The Clean Air Act identifies two types of national ambient air quality standards:

Nationally Consistent Data and Measures (NCDM)

Standards and guidelines to facilitate nationally consistent data collection, to ensure compatibility with existing standards efforts and to Identify and recommend methods and tools for data integration, analysis, and presentation.

Neonatal Mortality

The statistical rate of infant death during the first 28 days after live birth, expressed as the number of such death per 1,000 live births in a specific geographic area or institution in a given time.

Neural Tube Defect (NTD)

Birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. The neural tube is a layer of cells that ultimately develops into the brain and spinal cord. They happen in the first month of pregnancy, often before a woman even knows that she is pregnant.

Nitrate

A chemical compound that contains oxygen and nitrogen and that is used in fertilizer.

Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)

Nitrogen Oxide consists of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and is formed when nitrogen (N2) combines with oxygen (O2). Their lifespans in the atmosphere range from one to seven days for nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, to 170 years for nitrous oxide.

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O

Occupation

A person’s usual or principal work or business, especially as a means of earning a living.

Occupational Health

The promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations by preventing departures from health, controlling risks and the adaptation of work to people, and people to their jobs.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

An agency of the US government (under the Department of Labor) with the responsibility of ensuring safety at work and a healthful work environment.

Overcrowded Housing

Refers to the situation in which more people are living within a single dwelling than there is space for, so that movement is restricted, privacy secluded, hygiene impossible, rest and sleep difficult.

Ozone

A form of oxygen, O 3, with a peculiar odor suggesting that of weak chlorine, produced when an electric spark or ultraviolet light is passed through air or oxygen. It is found in the atmosphere in minute quantities, especially after a thunderstorm, is a powerful oxidizing agent, and is thus biologically corrosive. In the upper atmosphere, it absorbs ultraviolet rays, thereby preventing them from reaching the surface of the earth. It is used for bleaching, sterilizing water, etc.

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P

Particulate Matter

Also known as particle pollution or PM, particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. Particle pollution is made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles. The size of particles is directly linked to their potential for causing health problems. EPA is concerned about particles that are 10 micrometers in diameter or smaller because those are the particles that generally pass through the throat and nose and enter the lungs. Once inhaled, these particles can affect the heart and lungs and cause serious health effects. EPA groups particle pollution into two categories:

Part per Billion (ppb)

Concentration by volume of one part of a gas (or vapor) or substance per billion parts of air or liquid. Used to measure the concentration of a contaminant in soils and sediments.

Part per Million (ppm)

A unit of measure of the amount of dissolved solids in a solution in terms of a ratio between the number of parts of solids to a million parts of total volume.

Perinatal Mortality

The number of stillbirths and deaths in the first week of life per 1,000 live births. The perinatal period commences at 22 completed weeks (154 days) of gestation and ends seven completed days after birth.

Pesticide

A chemical used to prevent, destroy, or repel pests. Pests can be insects, mice and other animals, weeds, fungi, or microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Pesticides also are used to kill organisms that can cause diseases. Most pesticides contain chemicals that can be harmful to people, animals, or the environment.

Poison

Any substance that can cause severe organ damage or death if ingested, breathed in, or absorbed through the skin. Many substances that normally cause no problems, including water and most vitamins, can be poisonous if taken in excessive quantity.

Pollution

The presence in or introduction into their environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects.

Poverty

State of condition of having little or no money, goods, or means of support; condition of being poor.

Pneumoconiosis

A group of interstitial lung diseases caused by the inhalation of certain dusts and the lung tissue’s reaction to the dust. The principal cause of the pneumoconiosis is work-place exposure; environmental exposures have rarely given rise to these diseases.

Preterm Birth

Birth of an infant before 37 weeks of pregnancy. For EPHT, preterm births are measured among singleton births only.

Prevalence

The percentage of a population that is affected with a particular cause/condition at a given time period.

Prevention

The act of stopping something or ensuring something does not happen.

Profile

Information about a community that presents a history, description, or analysis.

Public Health Information Network (PHIN)

A national initiative to increase the capacity of public health agencies to electronically exchange data and information across organizations and jurisdictions (e.g., clinical care to public health, public health to public health and public health to other federal agencies).

Public Use Data Sets

Public use fata sets will not contain identifiable or potentially identifiable information consistent with currently accepted procedures for reducing disclosure risk. To address issues of confidentiality protection and statistical stability, a combination of disclosure control procedures including additional aggregation, and suppression will generate and display public use data sets or nationally consistent measures.

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Q

Query

The information entered into a search field by the user that tells the computer what to search.

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R

Race

A group of people who share similar and distinct physical or genetic characteristics, a common culture or history.

Radionuclide

An unstable form of a chemical element that radioactively decays, resulting in the emission of nuclear radiation.

Radon

Naturally occurring colorless, odorless, and chemically inert but radioactive gas present (in varying amounts) in all soils and groundwater, and which occurs due to decay of uranium atoms over time. It enters homes through cracks and opening in concrete slabs and pores in hollow concrete blocks. Although exposure to radon produces no immediate symptoms, it is classified as a known carcinogen by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Ratio

The relationship in quantity, amount, or size between two or more things.

Reproductive Health

A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Research

The systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish face and reach new conclusions.

Risk factor

Any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. Some examples of the more important risk factors are underweight, unsafe sex, high blood pressure, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene.

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S

Schema

The structure of a database system, described in a formal language supported by the database management system (DBMS). In a relational database, the schema defines the tables, the fields in each table, and the relationships between fields and tables. Schemas are generally stored in a data dictionary. Although a schema is defined in text database language, the term is often used to refer to a graphical depiction of the database structure.

Sex Ratio at Birth

The number of boys born alive per 100 girls born alive. For EPHT, sex ratio at birth applies to singleton births only.

Silicosis

A form of lung disease resulting from occupational exposure to silica dust over a period of years. Silicosis causes slowly progressive fibrosis of the lungs, impairment of lung function and a tendency to tuberculosis of the lungs.

Singleton Birth

A child born singly, rather than one of a multiple birth.

Smog

Fog that has become mixed and polluted with smoke. A form of air pollution produced when sunlight causes hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from automotive emissions to combine in a photochemical reaction.

Socioeconomic Status

is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.

Soil

Soil is the loose top layer of the Earth's surface, consisting of rock and mineral particles mixed with decayed organic matter (humus), and capable of retaining water, providing nutrients for plants, and supporting a wide range of biotic communities.

Spatial Analysis

Spatial analysis is the process of extracting or creating new information about a set of geographic features to perform routine examination, assessment, evaluation, analysis or modeling of data in a geographic area based on pre-established and computerized criteria and standards.

Spina Bifida

Spina Bifida is characterized by theincomplete development of the brain, spinal cord, and/or meninges (the protective covering around the brain and spinal cord), it is classified as a neural tube defect (NTD).

Stakeholder

A stakeholder is any person,organization, social group, or society that has a stake in the business. Thus,stakeholders can be internal or external to the business. A stake is a vital interest in the business or its activities.

Statistics

Statistics is a branch ofmathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data. Also, see Confidence Intervals.

Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur Dioxide is a colorless, nonflammable, water-soluble, suffocating gas, SO2, formed when sulfur burns. Used chiefly in the manufacture of chemicals such as sulfuric acid, in preserving fruits and vegetables, and in bleaching, disinfecting and fumigating.

Suppression

Suppression refers to a statistical practice used to protect patient confidentiality and potentially identifyinginformation by withholding or excluding small numbers within a specific demographic or geography.

Surface Water

Surface water is natural water that has not penetrated much below the surface of the ground such as in a stream, river, lake, wetland or ocean.

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T

Target Population

Target Population is a particular group of people that is identified as the intended recipient of an advertisement, product or campaign. Also called target audience.

Term Birth

Term birth is childbirth at the end of a normal duration of pregnancy, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.

Test

A test is any blood lead draw (capillary, venous or unknown sample type) on a child that produces a quantifiable result and is analyzed by a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified facility or an approved portable device. A blood lead test may be collected for screening, confirmation, or follow-up.

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital malformation of the heart characterized by an abnormal opening in the septum diving the ventricles, misplacement of the aorta so that it receives blood from both ventricles instead of only the left ventricle, narrowing of the pulmonary artery, and enlargement of the right ventricle.

Transposition of the Great Arteries

Transposition of the Great Arteries refers to a heart defect that occurs from birth (congenital). The two major vessels that carry blood away from the heart -- the aorta and the pulmonary artery -- are switched (transposed).

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U

Uninsured

An uninsured person is one not covered by insurance.

Upper Limb Deficiencies

Upper limb deficiencies is a birth defect that occurs when a part of or the arm (upper limb) of a fetus fails to form completely during pregnancy.

US Census Bureau

The US Census Bureau is the principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

US Geological Survey (USGS)

USGS is a science organization that provides impartial information on the health of our ecosystems and environment, the natural hazards that threaten us, the natural resources we rely on, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the core science systems that help us provide timely, relevant and useable information.

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V

Vacancy Rate

Vacancy rate is the percentage of built space in the markets that are currently unoccupied or are available for rent.

Vehicular Fatalities

Vehicular fatalities means any person killed immediately or dying within 30 days as a result of a vehicular accident.

Vital Statistics

Vital statistics is data derived from certificates and reports of birth, death, fetal death, induced termination of pregnancy, marriage, (divorce, dissolution of marriage, or annulment) and related reports.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air.

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W

Water Quality Criteria

Water quality criteria refers to specific levels of water quality desired for identified uses, including drinking, recreation, farming, fish production, propagation of other aquatic life, and agricultural and industrial processes.

Watershed

A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off it goes into the same place.

Worker’s Compensation

Worker’s compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue his or her employer for the tort of negligence.

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Z

ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs™)

ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs™) are approximate area representations of U.S. Postal Service five-digit ZIP Code service areas that the Census Bureau creates using whole blocks to present statistical data from censuses and surveys.

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The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program
Missouri Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) is a program within the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services and is funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. EPHT is part of a larger initiative to establish Environmental Public Health Tracking systems at the national and state levels.